Citation - APA 6th Edition

About APA 6th ed.

This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychology Association style and common citations. Be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the APA and APA Style Blog for detailed standards and procedures. 

On October 1st 2019, the APA released a new edition of the style manual. This guide reflects the older, 6th edition. For more information on the 7th edition please see APA's Blog and the Corette Library APA Citation Guide 7th Ed.

In-text Citations

When you reference another source use an in-text citation in the body of your paper. 

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name(s) or Organization, Year).

I'm using...

Direct Quotes

If you're quoting the exact words of someone else, introduce the quote with an in-text citation in parentheses. Any sentence punctuation goes after the closing parenthesis.

  • According to Brown (2019), "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • Brown (2019) found that "Direct quote" (p. 1021).
  • [Some other introduction] "Direct quote" (Brown, 2019, p. 1021).

If you're directly quoting more than 40 words, use a blockquote. Block quotes don't need quotation marks. Instead, indent the text 1/2" as a visual cue that you are citing. The in-text citation in parentheses goes after the punctuation of the quote.

Shavers (2007) study found the following:

While research studies have established that socioeconomic status influences disease incidence, severity and access to healthcare, there has been relatively less study of the specific manner in which low SES influences receipt of quality care and consequent morbidity and mortality among patients with similar disease characteristics, particularly among those who have gained access to the healthcare system. (p. 1021)

Toro Tip: Use direct quotes sparingly! Focus on summarizing the findings from multiple research studies. In the sciences and social sciences, only use the exact phrasing or argument of an individual when necessary.

Summarizing or Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list.

According to Shavers (2007), limitations of studying socioeconomic status in research on health disparities include difficulties in collecting data on socioeconomic status and the complications of classifying women, children, and employment status.

In-text citations differ depending on the number of authors listed for a work, and if there is a group author.

I'm citing a work with...

1 Author

You only need the author's last name and the year.

(Abrams, 2018)

2 Authors

Connect both authors' last names with & (ampersand) and include the year.

(Wegener & Petty, 1994

3 or More Authors

If there are 3-5 authors...

In the first in-text citation:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent in-text citations:
(Kernis et al., 1993)

If there are 6+ authors...

You only need the first author's name, followed by et al., and the year.
(Harris et al., 2018)

Group Authors

First time with an abbreviation:

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)

Then all subsequent citations: (CDC, 2019)

References

Basic Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of SourceVolume (Issue), page range.
Retrieved from [URL web address].

I'm citing a...

Journal Article

  1. Author(s). Note: List each author's last name and initial as Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. Use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name. Read more from the APA Style website if there are 21 or more authors.
  2. (Year).
  3. Title of the article. Note: For works that are part of a greater whole (e.g. articles, chapter), use sentence case. Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.
  4. Title of the Journal, Note: Italicize and capitalize each word in the journal.
  5. Volume Note: Italicize the journal volume. If there is no issue, include a comma before the page range.
  6. (Issue), Note: If there is a issue number in addition to a volume number, include it in parentheses.
  7. Page range.
  8. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Read more about DOIs from the APA Style wesbite.
Ashing‐Giwa, K. T., Padilla, G., Tejero, J., Kraemer, J., Wright, K., Coscarelli, A., Clayton, S., Williams, I.,
& Hills, D. (2004). Understanding the breast cancer experience of women: A qualitative study of African American, Asian American, Latina and Caucasian cancer survivors. Psycho‐Oncology13(6), 408-428. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.750

News/Magazine Article

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year, Month, Date (xxxx, Month xx).
  3. Title of the article [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Title of the newspaper or publication [Capitalized and in italics],
  5. URL Retrieved from [URL].
Kennedy, M. (2018, October 15). To prevent wildfires, PG&E pre-emptively cuts power to thousands
in California. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/10/15/657468903/to-prevent-wildfires-pg-e-preemptively-cuts-power-to-thousands-in-california.

Print Book or eBook

Print Book

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the book [Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics].
  4. Edition(# ed.). [if any]
  5. City, State of Publication [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  6. Publisher.

Lee, H. (1960). To kill a mockingbird (1st ed.). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott & Co.

eBook

  1. Author(s) [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the book [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics].
  4. E-reader version, if any [Kingle, ePub, HTML. etc].
  5. Edition, if any (# ed.).
  6. URL Retrieved from [URL or subscription database].
Crouch, A. T., & Meurier, C. (Eds.). (2005). Vital notes for nurses: Health assessment.
Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com.

Book Chapter with Editor(s)

  1. Author(s) of the chapter [Last Name, First Initial., Middle Initial., &].
  2. Year (xxxx).
  3. Title of the chapter [Only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Editor(s) of the book In [First Initial, Middle Initial, Last Name &...] (Ed.) or (Eds.),
  5. Title of the book [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized, and in italics]
  6. Page range (pp. xxx-xxx).
  7. City, State of Publication [Full name of city, abbreviation of state]:
  8. Publisher.
  9. URL, if any Retrieved from [URL or subscription database].
Preheim, G. (2008). Clinical scholar model: Competency development within a caring curriculum.
In M. H. Oermann (Ed.), Annual review of nursing education. New York, NY: Springer. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Academic eBook Collection.

Web Page

  1. Author or organization [Full name of organization].
  2. Year (xxxx). [or (n.d.). for no date]
  3. Title of page, section, or document [Only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized].
  4. Format description [Web page, blog post, etc].
  5. URLRetrieved from [URL].
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Protect yourself with vaccination [Web page].
Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/features/adultvaccinations/.

Online Report

Citing a letter, photograph, text document, graphic material, or ephemera? Consult the Gerth Archives APA Citation Guide for Archival Materials.

Formatting Your APA Paper

How do I make a hanging indent in Word?

1. Highlight the citaiton with your cursor. 

2. Right click. 

3. Select Paragraph.

4. Under Indentation, select Special and Hanging.

hanging-indent.gif

 How can I save time formatting my paper? 

Microsoft Word and Google Docs have a Format Painter tool that will copy and apply basic formatting to any text! 

1. Highlight the formatting you want to apply. 

2. Select Format Painter

3. Highlight the text you want to change. 

Note: If using the Format Painter on the Reference List, you'll need to go back and add italics. 

format-painter.gif

 How do I get my page numbers to start at 1 on the second page? 

1. Double click the header on the second page. 

2. Select Page Numbers and top right. 

3. Right click the page number. 

4. Select Format Page Numbers.

5. Change Start at from 1 to 0. 

Note: Make sure the header is set to Different First Page for the running head. 

page-numbers.gif