Honors and Research
2017 Student Undergraduate Research Festival
Four students presented Health Sciences posters at Carroll's 2017 Student Undergraduate Research Festival (SURF), based on research projects they did under the supervision of Health Sciences faculty or as part of an internship.
Dry Needling in the Treatment of Chronic Myofascial Neck Pain: A Systematic Review
Objective: review relevant literature to determine if dry needling is an effective treatment for chronic myofascial neck pain. Methods: databases such as PubMed and CINAHL were searched for articles pertaining to dry needling and neck pain. Results: dry needling was found to have a positive effect on neck pain. Both dry needling and manual therapy was successful in decreasing pain, especially in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Discussion: dry needling can decrease hours of pain per day and pain intensity. Therefore, acupuncture should be coupled with stretching for the most effective treatment of myofascial neck pain
The Effects of Therapy on the Quality of Life in Veteran Amputees
Research for this poster presentation was conducted using peer-reviewed articles concerning the quality of life in veteran amputees through a therapeutic intervention. The research strived to compare whether or not therapy had a relationship with the outcome of quality of life. Articles were gathered from PubMed and CINAHL and assessed by the relevancy they had to whether or not quality of life was improved in veteran amputees with therapy. Therapeutic measures, such as medications or prosthetics, were shown to have a positive relationship between veteran amputees and quality of life. Specifically, prosthetics improved the social, mental, emotional, and physical well being of the amputee, although in one study a positive relationship between therapy and quality of life in veteran amputees was not shown. For veteran amputees, physical therapy and mental therapies are associated with improvements in quality of life, however more research needs to be done concerning interventions for the quality of life in veterans.
Mechanical vs. Manual CPR in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Objective
This systematic review was conducted to see if the current research had a definitive answer to whether manual or mechanical CPR had better survival outcomes. STUDENT UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FESTIVAL, SESSION 4 35 Methods. This systematic review was conducted between September and October 2016 and included all relevant peer reviewed articles. Articles were collected from PubMed and CINAHL and were included in the study based on if they had relevant information on survival out comes for manual and mechanical CPR in out-of-hospital situations. Results. Three articles agreed in that mechanical CPR improved survival out comes, while three other articles stated that there was no difference between manual and mechanical CPR, one article stated that mechanical CPR actually worsened patient outcomes. Conclusions. The overall conclusion of this systematic review is there needs to be more research conducted on the topic. Based on the current data collected, there is no single conclusion drawn from this study at this time. Keywords. out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical, thorax OR chest compression, manual CPR OR mechanical device CPR, and Lucas Device.
Effect of Volleyball Playing Surface on Joint Health
The sport of volleyball is becoming increasingly popular, with over 46 million American’s participating each year. At the competitive level, injuries are likely to occur and most commonly these are of the ankle and knee. There are many factors that may contribute to an athlete’s risk for joint injury such as gender, training load and previous trauma. However, this research examines whether playing surface, in this case sand or hardwood, has any effect on a player’s likelihood of injury due to the increased impact on their joints. Contributing factors and possible prevention techniques will also be discussed, in hopes to help coaches and players alike prevent and properly rehabilitate joint damage sustained while playing volleyball.
2016 Student Undergraduate Research Festival
Five students presented Health Sciences posters at Carroll’s 2016 Student Undergraduate Research Festival (SURF), based on research projects they did under the supervision of Health Sciences faculty or as part of an internship.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM) is a subset of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) thought to be caused by viruses such as polio and non-polio enterovirus, West Nile virus, herpesvirus and adenoviruses. AFM causes acute limb paralysis, facial weakness, and serious cases cause respiratory failure. AFM is not currently a reportable disease in any US state, which means there is no baseline to determine the prevalence of the disease. Healthcare professionals may be unaware of what signs and symptoms to look for during examinations. From August 2014 to July 2015, an outbreak of AFM occurred in 120 children within 34 states resulting in the majority being hospitalized. However, no data were collected in Montana to determine prevalence. The objective of this research was to retrospectively investigate illnesses in MT that displayed symptoms of, but were not previously diagnosed as, virus induced AFM. Results will be used to 1) to determine the seriousness of AFM in MT, 2) to determine prevalence, and 3) to investigate the requirements to make AFM a reportable disease to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Data were gathered through the MT Department of Health and Human Services by searching health data bases for reported signs and symptoms of case patients with AFM. Once collected, data were compiled and results showed several possible cases of AFM found in previous patients that were not reported to the local health department. Although measures of prevalence and disease severity are still under investigation, the results from this research suggest that AFM should become a reportable disease to NNDSS so that it can be better characterized and prevented in the future.
Microbial Community Characterization in an Arsenic Contaminated Watershed
Helena gets over 50% of its drinking water from Tenmile creek. With a rich mining history, over 100 abandoned hard-rock mines have introduced arsenic into this aquatic ecosystem. The presence of arsenic may contribute to a change in bacteria community composition and co-select for antibiotic resistance. The objective of this research was to detect changes in overall microbial diversity in response to arsenic concentrations. Sediment grabs were collected from ten different sites; three controls (< 10 mg/kg As), three mid-level arsenic concentrations (100-200 mg/kg As), and four high-level arsenic concentrations (250-6000 mg/kg As).Sediment from each site was plated on different media containing As III and As V. Bacterial colonies were picked from plates and identified using 16S gene sequencing (Macrogen USA, Rockville, MD), then compared to GenBank Database using NCBI BLAST. The community DNA was also extracted directly from sediments using a Power Soil Kit MoBio (Carlsbad, CA) and Next Generation Sequencing was performed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Lozupone Lab). Culturable species from each site were identified from 16S colony pick sequencing. The sequencing showed that Cyanobacteria streptophyta and Proteobacteria acidiphilium species were dominant in midlevel and high-level arsenic environments, and Cyanobacteria tramenophiles was a dominant species in the control environments. The Next Generation Sequencing showed a shift in high arsenic environments and high arsenic levels explained around 60% of the community differences. Arsenic caused a community change in diversity, as arsenic increased diversity in bacterial genera decreased.
Effects of Indoor Tanning on Risk of Developing Skin Cancer: Physical and Psychological Factors
The objective of this study was to review relevant peer-reviewed articles regarding the development of skin cancer and other psychological factors in relation to indoor tanning. The review aimed to determine if the risk of developing skin cancer increased with amount of indoor tanning use while also specifying the psychological factors that account for increased indoor tanning usage. Searches conducted through PubMed and CINAHL databases provided the supporting literature related for this topic. Other relevant review articles were obtained through Google Scholar. Of the ten articles reviewed, it was found that frequent indoor tanning increases risk of developing skin cancer later in life. In addition, it was found that indoor tanning is positively associated with other high-risk activities, and can be classified as an addictive behavior. Due to the fact that indoor tanning has been shown to increase risk of developing skin cancer, indoor tanning facilities should be required to implement more regulations regarding frequency and duration of use. Awareness should be promoted regarding risks of indoor tanning, particularly to adolescents, who appear to be at elevated risk due to social pressures.
Studies of Antibiotic Resistance in an Arsenic Contaminated Watershed
Water from abandoned mine adits that is high in metals such as arsenic, flows into the Upper Tenmile Creek, which supplies Helena with most of its public water supply. These metal rich environments can cause co-selection in bacteria for heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). These genes can then be passed on to pathogenic bacteria. The presence of various tetracycline resistance and arsenic resistance genes in sediment bacterial biofilms from Upper Tenmile Creek was assessed using PCR. The total bacterial community in each sample was also assessed through DNA extraction from sediment samples and Next Generation Sequencing of the 16S gene. The culturable bacterial community was also assessed by plating sediment samples and sequencing the 16S gene from selected colonies. Additionally, bacteria were selected from sediments by plating on media with tetracycline and arsenic to select for bacteria with arsenic and tetracycline resistance genes. The results showed amplification of the Tet O gene and Tet W gene that both encode for tetracycline resistance. The total community assessment also showed that the diversity of bacteria in heavy metal rich environments was less than in areas with lower levels of heavy metal contamination. In conclusion, amplification of the Tet O and Tet W genes show that ribosomal protection proteins from tetracycline may be present in the bacterial community of the heavy metal rich sites. Additionally, because there is less diversity in heavy metal rich environments, this shows that there may be selection for certain species of bacteria in those harsh conditions.
Effect of Volleyball Playing Surface on Joint Health
The Tracking of Yersinia Pestis using Multi-Locus Variable Tandem Repeat Analysis
Flea-borne zoonotic diseases including plague are present in the United States, specifically in the Four-Corners region. Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is present in rodent populations and their fleas, from which humans can become infected. Although Yersinia pestis causes large numbers of rodent die-offs and occasionally human infections over large geographical areas, there may be biological and geological barriers that separate plague epizootic activity. The objective of this study was to use multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to determine the population structure of Y. pestis during a human plague outbreak in the Four-Corners region during the 1980s. Although the outbreak pattern appeared widespread, we hypothesize that multiple locally maintained bacteria arising simultaneously were the cause rather than one outbreak strain that spread across the landscape. A set of Y. pestis isolates that were collected during the outbreak were analyzed using MLVA. Minimum spanning trees were used to evaluate the population structure based off of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers and the date of disease onset. Minimum-spanning trees based on date of onset may show that bacterial DNA fingerprints are similar from the cases whose onset dates were close together, and that the emergence of multiple outbreak strains cause seemingly widespread outbreaks. This analysis may also show that bacterial population structures vary more when the dates of onset within different cases are far away from each other.
The Health Sciences Department recognizes outstanding student achievement at Carroll's annual Honors Convocation.
John Snow Health Sciences Award
Named for the pioneering English physician who is widely considered to be the founder of epidemiology, this award is presented to graduating Health Sciences or Public Health seniors, who, in addition to excellence in scholarship, have demonstrated outstanding commitment to research and/or community service.
- 2017 - Heather Huguet
- 2016 - Ryan Edens
- 2015 - Brianna Eaton
Health Sciences Departmental Award
This award recognizes juniors and seniors majoring in Health Sciences or Public Health who have demonstrated excellent scholarship at Carroll and in their required major courses.
- Andrew Campbell
- Austen Davis
- Katelyn Graff
- Darren Hecker
- Heather Huguet
- Courtney Sherick
- Taylor Smith
- Kathryn Stein
- Ryan Edens
- Katelyn Graff
- Heather Huguet
- Conor Smith
- Dallas Vanluchene
- Alyssa Walker
- Brianna Eaton
- Ryan Edens
- Mallery Knoll
- Kathleen Mulligan
- Calli Prestwood
- Allison Sexe
- Conor Smith
- Dallas Vanluchene
- Alyssa Walker
Fahlberg Memorial Scholarship
The Laurie and Larry Fahlberg scholarship is annually awarded to the Health Sciences/ Public Health student who most exemplifies a commitment to the field through merit in academics, excellence in community commitment, and financial need.
- 2017 - Darren Hecker
- 2016 - Tory Umsted
Mike Franklin Endowed Scholarship
The Mike Franklin Endowed Scholarship honors the legacy of Dr. Mike Franklin, Director of Counseling Services at Carroll from 2003-2014. It is awarded to a student majoring in Health Sciences or Public Health who is committed to addressing the health challenges facing our nation and our world. The student will also exemplify quality, character, and academic promise, as well as have achieved excellent grades and demonstrated financial need.
- 2017- Amanda Harrod