Dr. Gerald Shields

Portrait of Dr. Gerald ShieldsEducation

B. A., Carroll College, 1966
M. S., Central Washington State, 1970
Ph. D., University of Toronto, 1974

Biography

From 1974 until 1999 I taught genetically related classes at the Department of Biological Sciences and conducted research at the Institute of Arctic Biology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. In 1999 I accepted the position of the James J. Manion Endowed Chair of Biological Sciences here at Carroll, which I have held since.

I have taught Evolutionary Analysis, Biology Senior Seminar, Honors Thesis Writing, Ornithology, and Field Ornithology at Carroll College.

My research interests are in the field of Evolutionary Biology, specifically speciation in animals. My past research has focused on the genetic relationships of humans, bears, Canada geese, pollock, wolves, and numerous species of birds. Currently, I study the divergence genetics (chromosomal and molecular) of the black fly complex, Simulium arcticum (Diptera: Simuliidae). My research support has come from The National Geographic Society, the M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust, and the Artaza Center.

Recent Publications:

shields1.jpgPierson, B. J., J. M. Pearce, S. L. Talbot, G. F. Shields and K. T. Scribner. 2000. Molecular genetic status of Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) from Buldir and the Semidi Islands, Alaska. Condor. 102: 172-180.

Shields, G. F, D. Adams, G. Garner, M. Labelle, J. C. Pietsch, M. Ramsay, C. Schwartz, K. Titus and S. Williamson. 2000. Phylogeography of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Brown Bears and Polar Bears. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 15: 319-326.

Hundertmark, K. J., G. F. Shields, I. G. Udina, R.T. Bowyer, A. A. Danilkin and C.C. Schwartz. 2002. Phylogeography of North American moose (Alces alces): Process and pattern of the Nearctic colonization. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 22:375-387.

Hundertmark, K. J., G. F. Shields, R. T. Bowyer, and C. C. Schwartz.  2002.  Genetic relationships deduced from cytochrome-b sequences among moose.  Alces 38:113-122.

Hundertmark, K. J., R. T. Bowyer, G. F. Shields, and C. C. Schwartz. 2003. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (A. alces) in North America. Journal of Mammalogy. 84(2) 718-728.

Hundertmark, K. J., R. T. Bowyer, G. F. Shields, C. C. Swartz, and M. H. Smith. 2006. Colonization history and taxonomy of moose, Alces alces, in southeastern Alaska inferred from mtDNA variation. Wildlife Biology 12:3 331-338.

shields2.jpgShields, G. F., G. Clausen, C. S. Marchion, T. L. Michel, K. C. Styren, C. N. Riggin, T. D. Santoro and L. M. Strizich. 2007a. The Effect of Elevation on the Distribution of Sibling Species in the Black Fly, Simulium arcticum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). The Western North American Naturalist. 67, 39-45.

Shields, G. F., G. Clausen, J. Pickens, and L. M. Strizich.  2007b. Reproductive Status of Cytospecies and Cytotypes of the Simulium arcticum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Montana. Intermountain Journal of Sciences. Vol. 13, No. 1, 32-43.

Shields, G. F., B. A. Christiaens, M. L. Van Leuven and A. L. Hartman.  2009.  Reproductive Status and Continuity of Taxa of the Simulium arcticum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Clearwater River, Montana (2007, 2008, and 2009). Western North American Naturalist.  69, 511-520.

Conflitti, I. M., M. J. Kratochvil, M. Spironello, G. F. Shields and D. C. Currie. 2010. Good Species Behaving Badly: Non-monophyly of Black Fly Sibling Species in the Simulium arcticum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 57: 245-257.

Conflitti, I.M., G.F. Shields, and D.C. Currie. 2012.  A 'Complex' problem: delimiting sibling species boundaries in black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). The Canadian Entomologist. 44: 323-336.

Shields, G. F. and M. J. Kratochvil. 2012. A Remnant of an Incipient Speciation Event in the Simulium arcticum complex: (Diptera: Simuliidae) at the Coeur d’Alene River, Idaho. American Midland Naturalist. 166- 239-251.

Shields, G. F. 2013. The significance of chromosome change in black fly speciation. Western North American Naturalist Monographs. 6: 63-86.

Shields, G. F. 2014. Incipient Speciation and Additional Evidence of Diversity in the Simulium arcticum Complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). American Midland Naturalist 172: 1-13.

Conflitti, I. M., G. F. Shields, R. W. Murphy, and D. C. Currie. 2014. The speciation continuum: Population structure, gene flow and maternal ancestry in the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 78:43-55.

Conflitti, I. M., G. F. Shields, R. W. Murphy, and D. C. Currie. 2015. The speciation continuum: ecological and chromosomal divergence in the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.  115, I, 13-27.

Shields, G. F. 2015. Stability of community assemblages in the black fly Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Annals of the American Entomological Society. 108 (4): 487-493.

Shields, G. F. 2015. Differential development of male and female larvae of the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae). Journal of Entomological Science. Vol. 18 (4): 294-301.

Conflitti, I. M., G. F. Shields, R. W. Murphy, and D. C. Currie. 2015. Genetic panmixia within a narrow contact zone between chromosomally and ecologically distinct black fly sibling species (Diptera: Simuliidae).  Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 28 (8): 1417-1433.

Shields, G. F. and D. G. Hokit. 2016. Does River Corridor Affect Chromosomal Diversity within the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)? Freshwater Science. Vol. 35 (3);1023-1031.

Shields, G. F. 2016. Determining causal factors of diversity in the Simulium arcticum complex of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae). Trends in Entomology. Vol. 12: 73-80.

Conflitti, I. M., G. F. Shields, R. W. Murphy, and D. C. Currie. 2017. Resolving evolutionary relationships in closely related non-model organisms: a case study using chromosomally distinct members of a black fly species complex. Systematic Entomology. Vol. 42 (2) 301-321.

Shields, G. F. and J. P. Shields. 2017. Sex-chromosome diversity within the Simulium arcticum complex of Central Idaho. In prep.

Shields, G. F. 2017. The black flies of western Montana, northcentral Idaho and eastern Washington. In prep.