# Course Descriptions

## Mathematics Courses

### ENGR 326 - Energy & the Environment (GD)

3.00 CrThis course will look at the role that energy plays in our modern world. We will learn about the physics of energy so that students can calculate the energy content of a variety of systems, such as: gasoline, other fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, wind, bio mass and so on. Applications of the energy schemes in our lives will then be explored. We will discuss the global use and needs of energy and the environmental problems that have resulted from energy development and how we can improve our community and the world.

Pre-requisites: MA 122 or MA 131 and sophomore standing.

Spring semester.

Fulfills Global Diversity requirement.

### MA 102 - Foundations of College Math

3.00 CrThis course presents fundamental math concepts so students can develop the foundational math skills required for subsequent college math courses. Students will utilize in-class instruction and online learning materials.

This course does not satisfy the Core math requirement.

Offered at the discretion of the department.

### MA 112 - Precalculus: Function & Graphs

3.00 CrA comprehensive study of elementary functions to prepare students for a college course in calculus. Topics include a review of intermediate algebra including the solution of equations and inequalities, and an in-depth look at functions, inverse functions, their graphs, symmetries, asymptotes, intercepts, and transformations. Linear, polynomial, rational, radical, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are studied, and graphing calculators are used extensively.

### MA 117 - Diff Equations and Lin Algebra

3.00 CrIntroductory college mathematics course in finite difference equations and linear algebra. Topics include sequences, differences, linear and nonlinear difference equations, systems of difference equations, numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear equations, and analytical techniques for solving linear systems using linear algebra. Applications from many fields are studied and the role of mathematical modeling is a central focus. Formal computer labs are a part of the course each week, with spreadsheets being the primary software employed. This course satisfies a Carroll College Core Curriculum for all students and the mathematics requirement for business majors.

Prerequisite: three years of high school mathematics through Intermediate Algebra.

Each semester.

### MA 121 - Differential Calculus

3.00 CrThis is the first of a two-semester, six-credit calculus sequence. We begin the first semester by reviewing functions from several perspectives (symbolic, numeric, and graphic). For most of the course we study differential calculus, emphasizing how we can use calculus to understand real-world problems such as police radar detection, laying an oil pipeline around a swamp, and understanding motion. We use computers and calculators extensively, and we also focus on learning how to explain mathematics verbally and in writing.

The sequence MA 121-MA 122 is considered to be equivalent to MA 131.

Prerequisite: Four years of high school mathematics including precalculus.

### MA 122 - Integral Calculus

3.00 CrThis is the second of a two-semester, six-credit calculus sequence. In this course we study topics in integral calculus, emphasizing how we can use calculus to understand real-world problems such as fluid pumping and lifting, how rain catchers are used in city drain systems, and how a compound bow fires an arrow. We use computers and calculators extensively, and we also focus on learning how to explain mathematics verbally and in writing. The sequence MA 121-MA 122 is considered to be equivalent to MA 131. Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 121.

### MA 131 - Calculus Single Variable Funct

4.00 CrThis course covers all aspects of single-variable calculus including derivatives, anti-derivatives, definite integrals, and the fundamental theorem of calculus. We highlight how we can use calculus to understand real-world problems such as laying an oil pipeline around a swamp, fluid pumping and lifting, and how rain catchers are used in city drain systems. We use computers and calculators extensively, meeting in the computer lab once each week. We also focus on learning how to explain mathematics verbally and in writing. This is the same material that is covered in MA 121-122, except this is an accelerated course that does not review precalculus material.

Prerequisite: Previous calculus experience or strong precalculus background.

Fall semester.

### MA 141 - Intro to Mathmatical Modeling

4.00 CrThis course is an introduction to sequences, difference equations, differential calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra. Specific topics include analytical and numerical solutions to difference equations and first-order and second-order linear differential equations, phase line analysis, stability of equilibrium, matrix equations, and eigenvalues and eigenvectors. There is a heavy emphasis on mathematical modeling and applications. Computers and calculators are used extensively. Written and oral communication skills in mathematics are also developed. Prerequisite: High school mathematics through pre-calculus. A basic understanding of differential calculus is recommended.

Each semester.

### MA 189 - Sp: Mathematics

1.00 Cr### MA 201 - Math for Elementary Educ I

3.00 CrA course primarily for prospective elementary teachers, designed to give a background in logic, set theory, the set of integers and their properties, the system of rational numbers, and real numbers as an extension of the rationals.

Prerequisite: Intermediate Algebra.

Fall semester.

### MA 202 - Math for Elementary Educ II

3.00 CrAn extension of MA 201 into geometry and measurement, functions and their graphs, and a brief introduction to probability and statistics. Special emphasis will be given to the development of skills in problem-solving and to applications.

Prerequisite: MA 201. Spring semester.

### MA 207 - Introduction to Statistics

3.00 CrThe basic concepts used in statistics such as measures of central tendency, variation, and probability distributions, and statistical inference are stressed. Applications are made in the social, communication, health, biological, and physical sciences. This course does not count toward a major or minor in mathematics, nor does it count toward the math requirement for biology majors.

Prerequisites: High school algebra or a college level math course within the past two years.

Each semester.

### MA 232 - Differ Equations/Linear Alg I

4.00 CrThis course is an introduction to difference equations, differential equations, and linear algebra. Specific topics include analytical and numerical solutions to difference equations and first-order linear differential equations, phase line analysis, stability of equilibrium, matrix equations and eigenvalues. We emphasize how this mathematics can be used on many real-world problems such as how to predict the spread of a disease, how a home mortgage works, and how to understand the growth of animal populations. We use computers and calculators extensively, meeting in the computer lab once each week. We also focus on learning how to explain mathematics verbally and in writing.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 131 or in MA 122.

Spring semester.

Taught only as a dual-enrollment course in area high schools.

### MA 233 - Multivariable Calculus

4.00 CrIn this course we study multivariable and vector calculus including vectors, parametric equations, surfaces, partial differentiation, multiple integrals, and vector calculus. The big spotlight in this course is using these ideas to understand things like force fields, the flow of water, and magnetic fields. Once a week we meet in the computer lab to use the power of computers to focus on the visual aspects of these concepts to gain insight into more complex situations. We also focus on learning how to explain mathematics verbally and in writing.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 131 or in MA 122.

Fall semester.

### MA 250 - Mathematical Writing

1.00 CrIn this course we will learn to use the LaTeX markup language in order to produce high quality mathematical documents that include mathematical symbols and equations. We will integrate text, equations, tables, and figures into a professional mathematical document with in-text citations and reference list. Through a series of weekly writing assignments, we will learn how to write up mathematical work in a clear, logical manner, whichh guides the reader step-by-step through the work that was performed.

Prerequisites: MA 121, MA 131, or MA 141.

### MA 289 - Special Topic: Math

1.00 Cr### MA 306 - Real Analysis

3.00 CrWhy does calculus work? In this course, we study real numbers, sequences, and functions, in order to develop the logical foundations for calculus. What does it mean to say that a function has a particular limit? What does it mean for a function to be continuous? We learn to create the mathematical proofs that make up the logical structure behind the limits, derivatives, infinite series, and integrals of calculus.

Prerequisite: Grade of "C-" or better in MA 131 or MA 122. Spring semester.

### MA 314 - Prob & Stats for Engineers

2.00 CrThis course is a calculus-based introduction to the topics in probability and statistics that are necessary in engineering. Topics to be covered include the normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions, hypothesis tests, and confidence intervals. Particular attention will be given to applications in the sciences and engineering. This course includes an introduction to the R statistics language. Note: this course is identical to the first 10 weeks of MA 315. Students may not receive credit for both MA 314 and MA 315.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 131 or in MA 122.

Each semester.

### MA 315 - Probability & Statistics

3.00 CrThis course provides a calculus-based introduction to probability and statistics. After a brief introduction to probability, this course will focus on statistics with a strong emphasis on experimental design. Topics to be covered include the normal, binomial, and Poisson distributions, hypothesis tests, confidence intervals, ANOVA, design of experiments, and least squares regression. Particular attention will be given to applications in the sciences and engineering. This course includes an introduction to the R statistics language.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 121 or MA 131.

Each semester.

### MA 321 - Math in the Mountains

3.00 CrMath in the Mountains is an interdisciplinary course in which students engage in a hands-on learning experience using mathematical modeling to understand current major societal issues of local and national interest. The course is run in collaboration with local businesses, research centers, non-profits, and government organizations that provide data so that teams of students can act as consultants throughout the course thus creating strong connections between Carroll College and the greater Helena community, while engaging in a learning and discovery process.

This one-semester upper-level course is open to mathematics and non-mathematics majors at the sophomore level and above.

Every Fall.

Prerequisites: Grades of "C-" or better in MA141 and MA131.

This course may be repeated for credit.

### MA 328 - Modern Apps of Discrete Math

3.00 CrA look at some actual applications of discrete mathematics that emphasize such unifying themes as mathematical reasoning, algorithmic thinking, modeling, combinatorial analysis, the kinds of structures used in discrete mathematics, and the use of technology. Possible topics include cryptography, primes and factoring, computer passwords, networking problems, shortest paths, scheduling problems, building circuits, modeling computation, and correctness of algorithms. Three one-hour class periods with a substantial computing component illustrating the technology and the ideas studied.

Prerequisite: Grades of "C-" or better in MA 131 or MA 121-122.

Fall semester.

### MA 334 - Diff Equat and Linear Alg II

4.00 CrIn this course, we focus on both systems of differential equations, with special attention given to modeling, linearization, and equilibrium analysis; as well as the mathematical language of systems-linear algebra, especially transformations and vector spaces. We will motivate the material through applications such as population models, structural, and electrical systems, and linear algebra applications such as 3-D imaging, Markov processes, and Leslie matrices. Technology will again play a major role in this course, as we will have frequent computer demonstrations in class and weekly computer labs to explore the quantitative aspects of these topics. You will have the opportunity to explore topics beyond the textbook on a series of group projects throughout the semester.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 232 or MA 141 with MA 131. Spring semester.

### MA 342 - Numerical Methods (WI)

3.00 CrThis course is an introduction to numerical methods and MATLAB programming. We focus not just on how numerical methods work, but when they are appropriate, where they fail, and how to interpret their results. Specific topics vary by instructor but will be chosen from roundoff and truncation errors, root-finding methods, numerical methods for linear algebra, least squares regression methods, interpolation, numerical integration and differentiation, and numerical algorithms for solving ordinary and partial differential equations. Students will also learn to write functions in MATLAB using "if" statements as well as "for" and "while" loops.

Prerequisite: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 334 or taken concurrently with MA 334. Spring semester. Fulfills Writing Intensive requirement.

### MA 366 - Junior Seminar

1.00 CrThis is a one-credit, pass/fail, seminar-style course. There will be three main segments: select a faculty director for either an honors thesis or a senior project and write a research proposal, write a resume and research job opportunities, and write a graduate school essay and research graduate school opportunities. The overall goal of this course is to prepare students for their senior year and beyond. This course should be taken in the spring of the year before intended graduation (typically in the spring of the junior year).

Spring semester annually.

Grading is automatically P/F only.

### MA 401 - Abstract Algebra & Modern Geom

3.00 CrThis course covers the traditional topics from abstract algebra, including groups, rings, integral domains, fields, and homomorphic and isomorphic relationships, as well as standard topics from geometry, including axiomatic systems in both Euclidean and Non-Euclidean geometrics and transformational geometry with vectors and matrices. The focus for the class is the contemporary applications of the concepts presented, together with the weaving together of geometric and algebraic themes. Linear algebra is the integrating theme.

Prerequisites: Grade of "C-" or better in MA 306.

Fall semester.

### MA 406 - Complex Analysis

3.00 CrThis course covers the calculus of functions of a single complex variable. We will follow the traditional development of calculus of a single real variable, but we will discover the beauty that naturally arises when allowing the domains and ranges of functions to be subsets of the complex numbers. The topics covered are: complex numbers, limits, differentiation, Cauchy-Riemann equations, harmonic functions, elementary functions, conformal mapping, contour integrals, Cauchy integral representation, power series, and residues. Attention will be given to theoretical, computational, geometric, and applied problems. As such, students will be expected to prove theorems and to use a variety of tools (including MATLAB) to solve problems. Student will have the opportunity to explore topics beyond the textbook on at least one research project.

Prerequisites: A grade of "C-" or better in MA 233.

### MA 421 - Math Optimztn, Apps & Analys

3.00 CrThis course is a project-based exploration of topics in optimization and simulation. Topics include linear, integer, and nonlinear programming, stochastic processes, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We explore the modeling, algorithmic and heuristic solution approaches to, and sensitivity analysis of problems such as scheduling problems, the Knapsack problem, Traveling Salesman problem, and ranking problems. Computers and technology will again play an important role as we investigate both the implementation and the theoretical basis of solution techniques. This course will bring together topics from single and multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and probability.

Prerequisite: Grade of "C-" or better in MA 334.

Recommended prerequisite or concurrent enrollment in MA 315.

Fall semester.

### MA 422 - Senior Project

3.00 CrIn this course, each student will complete an independent research project in mathematics under the direction of a faculty member who will serve as the project director. The student and the project director will work together to select a topic that is of interest to the student, and at the end of the project the student will complete a written report and an illustrated presentation of the work involved.

### MA 425 - Internship

1.00 CrInternship Programs Recognizing that learning can take place outside the classroom, Carroll College allows its students to participate in a work program that relates to their area of studies. This employment must relate directly to classroom work in order to qualify for an internship. Close cooperation between Carroll and the participating companies insures a work experience that contributes significantly to the student?s overall growth and professional development. Juniors and seniors in any major area may participate with the approval of the department chairperson, academic advisor, and the internship coordinator. Students will receive academic credit and may or may not receive monetary compensation for an internship. A student may earn a maximum of 6 semester hours in the internship program. Enrollment in the course must be during the same semester in which the majority of the work experience takes place. Interested students should contact their academic advisor and the internship coordinator at the Career Services Office.

### MA 485 - Indepndnt Stdy:

1.00 CrIndependent study is open to junior and senior students only. At the time of application, a student must have earned a 3.0 cumulative grade point average. A student may register for no more than three (3) semester hours of independent study in any one term. In all cases, registration for independent study must be approved by the appropriate department chairperson and the Vice President for Academic Affairs.

### MA 489 - Special Topics:

1.00 Cr### MA 499 - Senior Thesis

1.00 CrSenior Thesis (Effective August 1, 2016)

The senior thesis is designed to encourage creative thinking and to stimulate individual research. A student may undertake a thesis in an area in which s/he has the necessary background. Ordinarily a thesis topic is chosen in the student's major or minor. It is also possible to choose an interdisciplinary topic.

Interested students should decide upon a thesis topic as early as possible in the junior year so that adequate attention may be given to the project. In order to be eligible to apply to write a thesis, a student must have achieved a cumulative grade point average of at least 3.25 based upon all courses attempted at Carroll College.

The thesis committee consists of a director and two readers. The thesis director is a full-time Carroll College faculty member from the student's major discipline or approved by the department chair of the student's major. At least one reader must be from outside the student's major. The thesis director and the appropriate department chair must approve all readers. The thesis committee should assist and mentor the student during the entire project.

For any projects involving human participants, each student and his or her director must follow the guidelines published by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Students must submit a copy of their IRB approval letter with their thesis application. As part of the IRB approval process, each student and his or her director must also complete training by the National Cancer Institute Protection of Human Participants.

The thesis is to be completed for three (3) credits in the discipline that best matches the content of the thesis. If the thesis credits exceed the credit limit, the charge for additional credits will be waived. Applications and further information are available in the Registrar's Office.