Correct answers are found through hypertext links located
at the end of the exam.
Question#1 Ancient Greek philosopher credited with creating
the subject of logic, and did original work in marine biology....
Aristotle, 384-322, pupil of Plato and founder of the Lyceum.
Question#2 A British empiricist and political philosopher,...
the father of liberalism, the epitome of empiricism's reasonableness.
(A) John Locke.
John Locke, 1632-1704, wrote the Essay Concerning Human Understanding in answer
to Descartes views, and also wrote two Treatises on Government, where he defended
individual liberties and outlined the inalienable rights of all as Life, Liberty,
Question#3 "Intentionality is the hallmark of all consciousness,"
wrote this German philosopher of the early 20th Century.
(B) Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl, 1859-1938, set out the basic method of phenomenology in his
Logical Investigations, where he aimed to transcend the actual objects and focus
on the experience itself.
Question#4 This scholastic philosopher is famous his identificatio
of five proofs for the existence of God, though his real contribution is to the
development of Catholic theology.
(C) St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas, 1224-1274, and Italian Dominican, who studied under Albert
the Great, taught at the University of Paris, and wrote two "summa": the Summa
Contra Gentiles and the Summa Theologiae
Question#5 This German philosopher once said "What I understand
by "Philosopher": a terrible explosive in the presence of which everything is
(A) Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844-1900, famous for proclaiming that "God is dead,"
and advocating the emergence of a man of strength and hardness, the Superman (Ubermensch),
who will bring about the total revaluation of all morals.
Question#6 Proclaimed as the "Father of modern philosophy,"
he developed four rules for the discovery of knowledge and once claimed that good
sense is the most widely distributed thing among human beings.
(B) Rene Descartes
Rene Descartes, 1596-1650, a french scientist, mathematician, and philosopher,
described his new vision as the product of a dream he had on November 10, 1619,
convincing him that true knowledge must come from human reason alone. (It is not
know who was the mother of modern philosophy.)
Question#7 Greek philosopher who developed the theory that all
knowledge is of ideas separate in existence from this world, and is famous for
describing ordinary life as like being chained in a cave.
Plato, 428-354 BC, follower of Socrates, founder of the Academy, the first
school of philosophy in Athens. His allegory of the cave appears in his dialogue,
The Republic, and he believed that ideas were the true reality, and things were
only pale replicas.
Question#8 "Nature," he argued, "has placed mankind under the
governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure"; after his death and at
his request, his stuffed body was placed in a glass box at the college he helped
(B) Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham, 1748-1832, an Englishman and first utilitarian, who argued
all punishment was evil, yet helped design prisons.
Question#9 This philosopher was heavily influenced by the rationalism
of Rene Descartes and argued that God is the only substance in existence, and
God and Cosmos are one and the same.
(A) Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza, 1632-77, a dutch lens grinder, tried to demonstrate mathematically
how to live a good and moral life in his book Ethics; he was excommunicated by
his synagogue for his ideas, and many Christians accused him of atheism.
Question#10 This philosopher believed that the genuine method
of metaphysics is the fundamentally the method which Newton brought to science;
he once rhapsodized that: "Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing
admiration and awe...the starry heavens above and the moral law within."
(C) Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804, wrote his Critique of Pure Reason to discover the
true capacities of human thought, and followed that with the Critique of Practical
Reason, from which the quote is taken. He famously argued that only appearances
(phenomena) are known, the attempt to go beyond appearance to reality (noumena)
is unknowable and inevitably leads to paradoxes, fallacies, and actual contradiction.
Question#11 This 4th Century christian convert is famous for
his idea that the human will is divided, and infamous for his suggestion that
human beings are either for God or against Him.
Aurelius Augustine, or St. Augustine, 354-430, was one of the greatest fathers
of the Catholic Church. Though everyone seems unusually fixated on his description
of his early sinful life, he developed analyses of the nature of moral experience,
free will, time and eternity. His most important work was the City of God, where
he developed a "philosophy of history," and identified humans as either members
of the city of man or the city of God.
Question#12 Another British philosopher, this man was an early
researcher in logic and mathematics, and developed a paradox about "the class
of all classes that are not members of themselves."
(C) Bertrand Russell
Question#13 Arguing that "mind has no sex," this English philosopher
concluded that rights are not determined by gender, and that women should have
complete personal and economic independence.
(A) Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797, was more reactionary and enlightened than
the intellectuals of her day, who referred to her as a "hyena in petticoats" and
a "philosophizing serpent." She wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Men," while
living in France, later married William Godwin, and died at age 38 giving birth
to her daughter, the writer Mary Godwin Shelley.
Question#14 He was probably the most famous philosopher of
the 20th Century, though he argued that nothingness lies coiled in the heart of
being, like a worm, and accused many people of hiding the truth from themselves
and living a bourgeois life of bad faith.
(B) Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre, 1905-1980, a french existentialist, who wrote philosophical
and literary works, and was involved in political activity. He was concerned with
the a philosophy of decision, and wanted to bring the philosopher down into the
street. With Simone de Beauvoir and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, he editted a left-wing
journal called Les Temps Modernes.
Question#15 Karl Marx referred this man as the "Prussian Aristotle,"
he once wrote that "history teaches us that people have never learnt anything
(A) Georg W.F. Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, 1770-1831, one of the greatest teachers of
his time, rejected Kant's metaphysics, arguing that all reality is one, and that
the real is rational. He went on to describe a dialectic that he argued determined
the whole process of human history and human thought.
Question#16 Thought he is classified as one of the British
empiricists, this scotsman set out to create the foundations of a genuine empirical
science of human nature, only end up undermining those foundations.
(B) David Hume
David Hume, 1711-1776, was seen as a leader of the Scottish Enlightenment,
questioned our knowledge of the rules of nature, especially cause and effect,
finally concluding that he was unable to disprove that these ideas are false and
fantastic. This was thought to demolish induction as a scientific method.
Question#17 This famous proponent of utilitarianism argued
that altruism was as important as self-interest, and once quipped that he would
rather be Socrates dissatisfied than a pig satisfied.
(A) John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill, 1806-1873, defended the principle of utility, but also modified
Bentham's original ideas, moving the standard of goodness towards something more
Question#18 This nineteenth century thinker was famous for
the complaint that philosophers before him have only interpreted the world, when
the point is to change it.
(C) Karl Marx
Karl Marx, xxxx-xxxx, was a complex philosopher who was influenced by German
idealism, though he claimed to have turned Hegel on his head. He argued that capitalism
only alienates people.
Question#19 This Roman stoic described the life of every man
as a soldier's service that is long and various.
Epictetus, 50-130 AD, was a freed Roman slave and famous teacher of Stoicism.
His Handbook, a distillation of his work The Discourses, was widely admired and
read by soldiers in the Roman legions.
Question#20 This french philosopher coined the phrase "noble
savage," and described himself as the model of an estranged "modern man," cut
off from his true nature.
(C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78, argued for feeling rather than reason as the
basis for an approach to theology and politics. His view was that man is naturally
good, and institutions make him bad; however he sent all his five children to
the Foundling Hospital, refusing to raise any of them himself.